A Marine Corps veteran of World War II, McCarthy was elected to the U.S. Senate from Wisconsin in 1946.
Before appearing, Miller asked the committee not to ask him to name names, to which the chairman agreed but later ignored the agreement. Arthur Miller had already been named as a suspected communist by another suspect at the hearings. Miller (now married to Marilyn Monroe) applied for a new passport. The HUAC used this opportunity to subpoena him to appear before the committee.
Miller refused to name others, saying "I could not use the name of another person and bring trouble on him.“ As a result a judge found Miller guilty of contempt of Congress in May 1957. Miller was fined $500, sentenced to thirty days in prison, blacklisted, and disallowed a U.S. passport. (sentence later overturned)McCarthy examined authors for allegations of Communist influence. Yielding to the pressure, the State Department ordered its overseas librarians to remove these books from their shelves. Some libraries actually burned the newly forbidden books.